Population’s effects on education and the labor force will influence the opportunities available for the current generation of young people, the largest in history. The demographic transition—the combination of falling mortality rates followed by falling fertility rates—provides countries with a growing number of youth who can be educated and productively employed. With effective government policies and investments, this transition can create an engine for economic growth.

Fertility, education and labor are also related at the individual level. Smaller family size may improve girls’ access to school education for girls, and educated women are more likely to have smaller families and healthier children.When family planning services are not available, early pregnancy can decrease a woman’s educational and economic potential.